An Analysis the Emptiness in the Prajñāpāramitā Hṛdaya Sūtra and Ācarya Nāgārjuna Mādhyamaka School



The main purpose in the writing of this paper is to study the Emptiness teachings in Prajñāpāramitā Hṛdaya Sūtra, sources consulted included the Tibetan and Chinese Tripitaka, and to discuss the way how concept of Emptiness become tools to overcome all the sufferings and attained the fully enlightenment. Literary specially related their commentaries, and a
wide range of scholarly studies of Buddhism, Scientific books, articles and electronic sources.
There are two methods which are Meditation and Prajñā offered by the
Prajñāpāramitā Hṛdaya Sūtra to remove the suffering of all the sentient beings. We are unable to attain the fully enlightenment or to be free from the cyclic existence of suffering, if we are lack in any of these two methods. These methods are Interrelated. Only the meditation is not enough. It is needs more cooperation with Prajñā (wisdom) simultaneously. These teachings have also been shared by Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna schools. Moreover, Hṛdaya Sūtra,
Mādhyamika and the Yogācāra School particularly accept the teachings of emptiness in the “Mahaprajñāpāramitā Sūtra”, because the emptiness is the main teaching of all the Mahāyāna schools to be completely free from all the suffering.
The core teaching of the Hṛdaya Sūtra is Prajñā of Emptiness. When it is realized, all the problems come to an end. It is undoubted that this one subject of Emptiness covers all of the Lord Buddha’s teachings. The Hṛdaya Sūtra causes us to think differently, to open our mind eyes and to let our thoughts go beyond the enlightenment” or to reach the shore of the ocean of suffering:- ‘Nirvāṇa’. The paper has two objectives: (1) to study the origin and development of Hṛdaya Sūtra and its translation. (2) To analysis and compare of the teaching of Emptiness in Hṛdaya Sūtra and Ācarya Nāgārjuna Mādhyamaka School.


Prajñāpāramitā; Suffering; Emptiness

Full Text:



Conze, E. The Prajñaparamita Literature, 2nd ed., revised and enlarged: TokyoJapan, 1978.

Donald S.Lopez, Jr. The Heart sutra Explain ‘Indian and Tibetan Commentaries’. Published by State University of New York Press, Albany, 1988.

Dalai Lama ,translated and edited by Thupten Jinpa.The Essence of the Heart Sutra:The Dalai Lama’s Heart of Wisdom Teachings. Boston: Wisdom Publications,2002.

Hajime Nakamura. Indian Buddhism: A Survey with Bibliographical Notes . Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass , 1987.

Lamotte, É. ‘Surla formation du Mahayana’, Asiatica: Festschrift F.Weller,Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz, 1954.

Malcolm David Eckel. Indian Commentaries on the Heart Sutra:The Politics of Interpretation.

The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies .Vol 10, Number 2, 1987.

Red Pine .The Heart sutra: The Womb of Buddha’s. Washington, DC Shoemaker and Hoard, 2004.

Taishō Tripiṭaka Vol. 08. No. 0251, Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sūtra (般若波羅蜜多心經). Xuan

Zang translate (玄奘譯), C.E 649.

Taishō Tripiṭaka Vol. 08. No. 0252, The Storehouse of Omniscience Prajñāpāramitā Heart

Sūtra (普遍智藏般若波羅蜜多心經). Dharmachandra translate (法月重譯), C.E 741.

Taishō Tripiṭaka Vol. 08. No.0250. Mahāprajñāpāramitā Great Enlightening Spell Sutra (摩訶般若波羅蜜大明呪經). Kumārajiva translate (鳩摩羅什譯), ca.C.E 400.

Taishō Tripiṭaka Vol.08.No.0255, Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sūtra (般若波羅蜜多心經). Facheng translate (法成譯), C.E 856.

Taishō Tripiṭaka Vol.08.No.0257, Sūtra Spoken by the Buddha on the Holy Mother of Buddhas Prajñāpāramitā (佛説聖佛母般若波羅蜜多經). Dānapāla (施護譯), ca.C.E 1005.

Taishō Tripiṭaka Vol.08.No.0253, Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sūtra (般若波羅蜜多心經). Prajñā

Trns, Li Yen Trns (般若譯, 利言譯), C.E 790.

Taishō Tripiṭaka Vol.08.No.0254, Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sūtra (般若波羅蜜多心經).

Prajñācakra translate (智慧輪譯), C.E 861.

Venerable Yifa, M.C.Owens and P.M.Romaskiewicz. Prajnaparamita heart Sutra (Translate

from the Chinese Version of Heart Sutra).USA: Buddha’s Light Publishing, 2006.

Williams Paul. Mahayana Buddhism, Routledge, London and New York, 1989.

William Wilson Hunter. The Indian Empire: Its People, History, and Products, New Delhi: Published by Jetley, for Asian Educational Survices, 1886.


  • There are currently no refbacks.